Models, Exhibits, Specimens
Ninth Edition of the MPEP, Revision 10.2019, Last Revised in June 2020
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608.03 Models, Exhibits, Specimens [R-08.2012]
35 U.S.C. 114 Models, specimens.
The Director may require the applicant to furnish a model of convenient size to exhibit advantageously the several parts of his invention.
When the invention relates to a composition of matter, the Director may require the applicant to furnish specimens or ingredients for the purpose of inspection or experiment.
37 C.F.R. 1.91 Models or exhibits not generally admitted as part of application or patent.
- (a) A model or exhibit will not be admitted as part of the record of an application unless it:
- (1) Substantially conforms to the requirements of § 1.52 or § 1.84;
- (2) Is specifically required by the Office; or
- (3) Is filed with a petition under this section including:
- (i) The fee set forth in § 1.17(h); and
- (ii) An explanation of why entry of the model or exhibit in the file record is necessary to demonstrate patentability.
- (b) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (a) of this section, a model, working model, or other physical exhibit may be required by the Office if deemed necessary for any purpose in examination of the application.
- (c) Unless the model or exhibit substantially conforms to the requirements of § 1.52 or § 1.84 under paragraph (a)(1) of this section, it must be accompanied by photographs that show multiple views of the material features of the model or exhibit and that substantially conform to the requirements of § 1.84.
Models or exhibits are generally not admitted as part of an application or patent unless the requirements of 37 CFR 1.91 are satisfied.
With the exception of cases involving perpetual motion, a model is not ordinarily required by the Office to demonstrate the operability of a device. If operability of a device is questioned, the applicant must establish it to the satisfaction of the examiner, but he or she may choose his or her own way of so doing.
Models or exhibits that are required by the Office or filed with a petition under 37 CFR 1.91(a)(3) must be accompanied by photographs that (A) show multiple views of the material features of the model or exhibit, and (B) substantially conform to the requirements of 37 CFR 1.84. See 37 CFR 1.91(c). Material features are considered to be those features which represent that portion(s) of the model or exhibit forming the basis for which the model or exhibit has been submitted. Where a video or DVD or similar item is submitted as a model or exhibit, applicant must submit photographs of what is depicted in the video or DVD (the content of the material such as a still image single frame of a movie) and not a photograph of a video cassette, DVD disc, or compact disc.
37 C.F.R. 1.93 Specimens.
When the invention relates to a composition of matter, the applicant may be required to furnish specimens of the composition, or of its ingredients or intermediates, for the purpose of inspection or experiment.
See MPEP Chapter 2400 regarding treatment of biological deposits.