MPEP 710.01
Statutory Period

This is the Ninth Edition of the MPEP, Revision 08.2017, Last Revised in January 2018

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710.01    Statutory Period [R-07.2015]

37 C.F.R. 1.135 Abandonment for failure to reply within time period.

  • (a) If an applicant of a patent application fails to reply within the time period provided under § 1.134 and § 1.136, the application will become abandoned unless an Office action indicates otherwise.
  • (b) Prosecution of an application to save it from abandonment pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section must include such complete and proper reply as the condition of the application may require. The admission of, or refusal to admit, any amendment after final rejection or any amendment not responsive to the last action, or any related proceedings, will not operate to save the application from abandonment.
  • (c) When reply by the applicant is a bona fide attempt to advance the application to final action, and is substantially a complete reply to the non-final Office action, but consideration of some matter or compliance with some requirement has been inadvertently omitted, applicant may be given a new time period for reply under § 1.134 to supply the omission.

The maximum statutory period for reply to an Office action is 6 months. 35 U.S.C. 133. Shortened periods are currently used in practically all cases. See MPEP § 710.02(b).

37 CFR 1.135 provides that if no reply is filed within the time set in the Office action under 37 CFR 1.134 or as it may be extended under 37 CFR 1.136, the application will be abandoned unless an Office action indicates otherwise.

37 CFR 1.135(b) specifies that: (A) the admission of, or refusal to admit, any amendment after final rejection, or any related proceedings, will not operate to save the application from abandonment; and (B) the admission of, or refusal to admit, any amendment not responsive to the last action, or any related proceedings, will not operate to save the application from abandonment.

37 CFR 1.135(c) was amended to change the practice of providing a nonstatutory time limit (generally 1 month) during which an applicant may supply an omission to a previous reply. Under the current practice, the examiner may set a shortened statutory time period (generally 2 months) during which an applicant must supply the omission to the previous reply to avoid abandonment.

The prior practice under 37 CFR 1.135(c) was to set a time limit during which the applicant could supply the omission to the previous reply. Failure to supply the omission resulted in the abandonment of the application as of the due date for the previous reply. Filing a new application during the time limit, but beyond the due date for the previous reply, could have caused a loss of patent rights due to the lack of copendency between the applications.

37 CFR 1.135(c) now authorizes the examiner to accept a reply to a non-final Office action that is bona fide and is substantially complete but for an inadvertent omission as an adequate reply to avoid abandonment under 35 U.S.C. 133 and 37 CFR 1.135. When a bona fide attempt to reply includes an inadvertent omission that precludes action on the merits of the application (e.g., an amendment is unsigned or improperly signed, or presents an amendment with additional claims so as to require additional fees pursuant to 37 CFR 1.16(h), (i), or (j) ), the examiner may consider that reply adequate to avoid abandonment under 35 U.S.C. 133 and 37 CFR 1.135, and give the applicant a shortened statutory time period of 2 months to correct the omission (e.g., provide a duplicate paper or ratification, or submit the additional claims fees or cancel the claims so that no fee is due). The failure to timely supply the omission will result in abandonment under 35 U.S.C. 133 and 37 CFR 1.135. Extensions of time under 37 CFR 1.136(a) or (b) will be available, unless the action setting the shortened statutory period indicates otherwise.

When a bona fide attempt to reply includes an omission that does not preclude action on the merits of the application (e.g., a reply fails to address a rejection or objection), the examiner may waive the deficiency in the reply and act on the application. The examiner may repeat and make final the rejection, objection, or requirement that was the subject of the omission. Thus, a reply to a non-final Office action that is bona fide but includes an omission may be treated by: (A) issuing an Office action that does not treat the reply on its merits but requires the applicant to supply the omission to avoid abandonment; or (B) issuing an Office action that does treat the reply on its merits (and which can also require the applicant to supply the omission to avoid abandonment).

Finally, whether a 2-month shortened statutory time period is provided to the applicant to supply the omission to the previous reply is within the discretion of the examiner. Where the examiner determines that the omission was not inadvertent (e.g., the applicant is abusing the provisions of 37 CFR 1.135(c) to gain additional time to file a proper reply or to delay examination of the application), the examiner should notify the applicant of the omission in the reply and advise the applicant that the omission to the previous reply must be supplied within the period for reply to the prior action, including extensions of time under 37 CFR 1.136(a), if permitted. See also MPEP § 714.03.