TMEP 1207.01(d)(ii): Absence of Actual Confusion

October 2017 Edition of the TMEP

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1207.01(d)(ii)    Absence of Actual Confusion

It is well settled that the relevant test is likelihood of confusion, not actual confusion; thus, it is unnecessary to show actual confusion to establish likelihood of confusion. Herbko Int’l, Inc. v. Kappa Books, Inc., 308 F.3d 1156, 1165, 64 USPQ2d 1375, 1380 (Fed. Cir. 2002); Weiss Assocs. Inc. v. HRL Assocs. Inc., 902 F.2d 1546, 1549, 14 USPQ2d 1840, 1842-43 (Fed. Cir. 1990); In re Big Pig, 81 USPQ2d 1436, 1439-40 (TTAB 2006).