Trademark Manual of Examining Procedure (TMEP)
Key Word Index

Trademark Manual of Examining Procedure
Key Word Index




Abandonment of application (See also Petition to revive abandoned application and Reinstatement of inadvertently abandoned application)

Abstracts of title 503.08(a)

Acceptable Identification of Goods and Services Manual 1402.04

Access by public to files


  • of assignment records 503.08
  • of files held by Office personnel 109

Acquired distinctiveness (§2(f) claim) 1212 et seq.

Act of 1881 1601.04; 1602.02

Act of 1905 1601.04; 1602.02

Act of 1920 1601.05; 1602.03

Act of 1946 (See Trademark Act of 1946)

Action after issuance of notice of allowance and before filing of statement of use 806.03(j)(ii); 1107 - 1107.01

Action by affidavit/renewal examiner

  • upon examination of renewal application 1606.11
  • upon examination of §8 affidavit 1604.15

Action by examining attorney (See also Examination)


  • changing address of owner of registration 1609.11
  • changing correspondence address 503.01(b); 609.02 - 609.02(f)
  • correspondence 609 - 609.04
  • for communications to the International Bureau 1906
  • for communications to U.S. Patent and Trademark Office ("USPTO") 305.01
  • for electronic mail communications 304
  • for filing documents to be recorded in Assignment Division 503.04
  • of applicant 803.05
  • of assignee 502.02(a) - (b)

Advisory statement cannot serve as foundation for final refusal 714.05(c)

Aesthetic functionality 1202.02(a)(vi)

Affidavit of continued use or excusable nonuse (§8) (See also Affidavit of continued use or excusable nonuse (§71))

Affidavit of continued use or excusable nonuse (§71) (See also Affidavit of continued use or excusable nonuse (§8)) 1613

Affidavit of incontestability (§15) 1605 - 1605.06

Affidavit of use (See Affidavit of continued use or excusable nonuse (§8) and Affidavit of continued use or excusable nonuse (§71))

Affidavit under §8 (See Affidavit of continued use or excusable nonuse (§8))

Affidavit under §71 (See Affidavit of continued use or excusable nonuse (§71))

Agents 602.03 - 602.03(c)

Agreement of drawing and foreign registration in §44 application 807.03(f); 807.12(b); 1011.01

Agreement of drawing and specimen 807.03(e); 807.12(a) - 807.12(a)(iii); 1215.02(c)

Allegations of use in §1(b) application (See also Amendment to allege use and Statement of use) 714.05(a)(i); 1103

Alphabetical List, International 1401.02(c)

Amendment of application

Amendment of dates of use

  • after registration 1609.07
  • to reflect a change, must be verified 903.04
  • upon amendment of identification 903.08

Amendment of mark in registration 1609.02 - 1609.02(g)

Amendment of mark on drawing 807.15

Amendment of registration (See also Amendment of mark in registration) 1609 - 1609.09

Amendment to allege use 1104 - 1104.11

"America" or "American," marks comprising 1209.03(n); 1210.02(b)(iv)

American Viticultural Areas 1306.05(h)

Apostille 804.01(a)(i)

Appeal briefs, applicants’ 1501; 1501.02(a)

Appeal briefs, examining attorneys’

Appeal to Trademark Trial and Appeal Board

Appealable matter 1501.01


Applicant’s name 803.02

Applicants, joint 611.06(a); 803.03(d)

Application checklist 818

Application files

Application for registration

Application serial number 401.02

Applications for international registration (See International applications for registration)

Article 6 ter of Paris Convention 1205.02

Artist, name of, on original work of art 1202.09(b)

Artists and authors, name of, as mark 1202.09 - 1202.09(b); 1301.02(b)


  • entitled to prosecute application or registration 501.05; 502.01
  • establishing ownership in name of 502 - 502.03
  • issuance of new registration certificate to 502.03
  • issuance of original registration certificate in name of 502.02(a) - (b)
  • not domiciled in United States 501.04
  • stands in place of applicant or registrant 501.05

Assignment (See also Assignee)

Assignment, recordation of


Assumed business name 803.02; 803.02(a); 803.02(b)


Author, name of, as mark 1202.09(a) - 1202.09(a)(iii)

Averments, statutory 804.02



Background designs and shapes as mark 1202.11

Banking institution as applicant 803.03(g)

Basic Facts About Registering a Trademark 105

Basis for filing (See Filing basis)

Blackout period 504.04 ; 1103; 1104.03(b) - 1104.03(c)

Blinded Veterans Association 1205.01

"Bona fide and effective industrial or commercial establishment" 1002.04

Bona fide intention to use mark in commerce

  • acceptable language for statement of 1101
  • application filing basis, under §1(b) 806.01(b)
  • continued 1101; 1108.02
  • must be asserted in request for extension of time to file statement of use 1108.02(e)
  • must be asserted in written application 806.01(b) - 806.01(d); 1101
  • must be asserted in §44 application, even if use has commenced 1008
  • must be asserted in §66(a) application 804; 804.05; 1904.01(c)
  • not necessary to repeat in multiple-basis application 806.02(g)

Bona fide use in ordinary course of trade 901.02

Bona fides of applicant, in asserting intent to use mark in commerce, not inquired into by examining attorney 1101

Buenos Aires Convention Appendix B

Bulky specimens 904.02(b)

Business cards as specimens of service mark use 1301.04(h)(i)

Business trusts 803.03(e)(i)

Business with Office to be transacted in writing 708.03; 709.03; 709.04; 709.05



Canadian attorneys and agents 602.03(a)


Catalogs as trademark specimens 904.03(h)

Certificate of extension of protection of international registration 1904.05

Certificate of mailing procedure

  • correspondence returned by U.S. Post Office 305.02(g)
  • date used to determine timeliness 305.02(e)
  • effect of 305.02(e)
  • eligible correspondence 305.02(a)
  • location of certificate 305.02(c)
  • mailing requirements and address 305.01
  • non-receipt of correspondence by PTO 305.02(f)
  • not available for filing international applications 305.02(a)
  • not available for filing requests for transformation 305.02(a)
  • not available for filing requests to record changes to an international registration 305.02(a)
  • not available for filing responses to IB notices of irregularities 305.02(a)
  • not available for filing subsequent designations 305.02(a)
  • not available for filing trademark applications 305.02(a)
  • wording of certificate 305.02(d)

Certificate of registration

  • extension of protection of international registration 1904.05
  • indication that mark is on Principal Register in 1601.07
  • indication that mark is on Supplemental Register in 1601.07
  • issuance in name of assignee 502.02(a) - (b)
  • new, upon change of ownership 502.03

Certificate of transmission (See Facsimile transmission, certificate of)

Certification division of USPTO (See Document Services Branch)

Certification mark

Certification or certified copy of foreign registration required for §44(e) 1004.01

Chain of title 502.01; 502.02(a); 504.03

Change of attorney 604.03

Change of correspondence address 503.01(b); 609.02 - 609.02(f)

Change of filing date of application 204.03; 205; 206.01 ; 206.04 ; 1711

Character or person, as mark 1202.09 - 1202.09(b) ; 1202.10 - 1202.10(a); 1301.02(b)

Check, returned unpaid

Checklist, application 818

Checks, in general 405.02 - 405.02(a)

Citation of Decisions and USPTO Publications 705.05

Citizenship of applicant 803.04

Claim of priority (See also Priority under §44(d))

Claiming benefits of Act of 1946 under §12(c) 1603 - 1603.03

Class headings 1401.02(a)

Classification of goods/services

Clear error 706.01; 1109.08; 1706

Closings of USPTO, unscheduled 309

Coat of arms, refusal to register mark comprising 1204

Collateral estoppel 1217

Collective mark, in general (See also Collective membership mark and Collective trademarks and service marks)

Collective membership mark

Collective organization

Collective trademarks and service marks


Color claim 807.07(a) - 807.07(f)

Columns or sections of publications, marks that identify 1202.07 - 1202.07(b)

Combined affidavit under §§8 and 15 1605.05

Combined application 1403 - 1403.07


  • bona fide use in ordinary course of trade 901.02
  • commerce that may be lawfully regulated by Congress 901.03
  • definition of 901.01
  • territorial 901.03
  • type of 901.03
  • use in (See Use in commerce)
  • with the United States 901.03

Commercial name 1202.01

Commissioner, change of title 1701

Companion applications and registrations 702.03(a) - 702.03(a)(iv)


  • does not identify legal entity in the United States 803.03; 803.03(c)
  • used in commonwealth countries to designate legal entity 803.03(i)

Company, related (See Related company)

Compliance with other laws 907

Component or ingredient, mark used to identify 1402.05(a)

Composition material of goods 1402.05(b)

Computer programs

Computer services, identification of 1402.11(a) - 1402.11(a)(xii)

Computer software as service mark 1301.02(f)

Computing period for response to action 310

Concurrent use registration 1207.04 - 1207.04(g)(i)

  • not permitted in §44 and §66(a) applications 1207.04(b)

Conditional assignment 503.01(e)

Configuration of goods or packaging 1202.02 - 1202.02(f)(ii)

Conflicting applications 702.03(b); 705.03; 718.07; 1207 - 1207.03; 1208 - 1208.02(f)

Conflicting marks 702.03(b); 1207 - 1207.03 ; 1208 - 1208.02(f)

Congressional inquiry 1802

Consent agreement 714.05(d); 715.03(b); 1207.01(d)(viii)

Consent to register by living individual 813 - 813.01(c); 1206 - 1206.05

Conservatorship as owner of mark 803.03(e)

Constructive use 201.02; 1904.01(g)

Control over nature and quality of goods/services 1201.01; 1201.03 - 1201.03(a)

Convention or treaty relating to trademarks 1001; 1002.01 - 1002.05 ; 1900; Appendix B

Copending (companion) applications 702.03(a) - 702.03(a)(iv)

Copies of documents, when acceptable for filing 302.01

Copies of materials in files, requests for 111

Copies of trademark applications and registrations, requests for 111

Copying materials in files 109.03


Correction of drawing 807.13 - 807.16

Correction of errors in cover sheet or recorded document 503.06 - 503.06(f)

Correction of errors in international registration 1906.01(f)

Correction of mistake in name of applicant 1201.02(c)

Correction of mistake in registration 1609.10 - 1609.10(b)

Correspondence address 609 - 609.04

Correspondence for trademark applications 302.03(a)

Correspondence for trademark registrations 302.03(b)

Correspondence with applicants not domiciled in United States 609.04

Correspondence, returned as undeliverable 403

Correspondence, with whom held 609 - 609.04

Country of origin 1002.04

Courier service, delivery of correspondence by 307

Court orders concerning registrations 1610

Cover sheet required for recording in Assignment Division 503.03(e)

Credit card 405.01; 405.06

Cultivar names 1202.12




Date stamp (See "Office Date" label)

Dates of use (See also Date of first use in commerce and Date of first use of mark)

DBA designations 803.02 - 803.02(c)

De facto functionality 1202.02(a)(iii)(B)

De jure functionality 1202.02(a)(iii)(B)

Dead languages, translation of 809.01(b)(iii); 1207.01(b)(vi); 1207.01(b)(vi)(B) ; 1209.03(g)

Deadline for response 711 - 711.02

Deadline for response, how to compute 310

Deceptive matter 1203; 1203.02 - 1203.02(g); 1210.05 - 1210.05(e)

Deceptively misdescriptive geographic marks 1210; 1210.01(b); 1210.05(a) - 1210.06 ; 1210.06(b)

Deceptively misdescriptive marks 1209.04

Declaration in lieu of oath 804.01(b)

Declaration under §8 (See Affidavit of continued use or excusable nonuse (§8))

Declaration under §71 (See Affidavit of continued use or excusable nonuse (§71))

Defective application materials 204 - 204.03

Degrees or titles 1304.03(b)(ii) ; 1306.04 ; 1306.04(d)(ii)

Delay between execution and filing of papers 804.03; 1104.10(b)(ii); 1108.02(b); 1109.11(c)


Deposit accounts 405.03

Description of mark

Descriptiveness, geographical 1210 - 1210.09

Descriptiveness, mere 1209; 1209.01 - 1209.03(u)

Destruction of paper files 109.02

Diligence (See Due diligence in monitoring status of pending matters)

Director, statutory authority of 1701


Disparagement 1203.03 - 1203.03(b)(ii)

Distinctiveness of product design 1202.02(b)(i)

Distinctiveness of product packaging 1202.02(b)(ii)

Distinctiveness of trade dress 1202.02(b) - 1202.02(b)(ii)

Distinctiveness under §2(f) (See Acquired distinctiveness (§2(f)) claim)


Divisions, operating or unincorporated 803.01; 1201.02(d)

Document Services Branch, Public Records Division 111

Documents not returned to filer 404

Documents that the Office will record 503.02

Domain names, marks comprising 1209.03(m); 1215 - 1215.10

Domestic representative (of party not domiciled in United States)

  • designation by applicant 610; 811; 1013
  • designation by assignee 501.04
  • designation by renewal applicant 1606.10
  • mailing of correspondence to 609.04
  • with respect to affidavits under §8 1604.14
  • with respect to proceedings before Trademark Trial and Appeal Board 610

Drawing(s) (See also Special form drawing and Standard character drawing)

Dual citizenship asserted by applicant 803.04

Due diligence in monitoring status of pending matters 108.03; 1705.05; 1712.01; 1714.01(d)

Duplicate registrations not issued 703

Duration of registration 1602 - 1602.04



Educational institution as owner of mark 803.03(f)

Effective date

  • of Madrid Protocol Implementation Act 1900 (introductory text)
  • of Trademark Act of 1946 1601.02
  • of Trademark Law Revision Act of 1988 1602.01
  • of Trademark Law Treaty Implementation Act 1602.04

Effective filing date of application 206 - 206.03

Electronic filing through TEAS 301; 303.02(a)

Electronic funds transfer 405.05

Electronic image files 109.01; 402

Electronic mail 304 - 304.03

Electronic signature 611.01(c)

English, application must be in 802

Enrollment and Discipline, Office of 602; 602.03 - 602.03(b); 604.01; 611.05(b) ; 720

Entity of foreign applicants, common terms designating 803.03(i); 803.04; Appendix D

Entity, legal 803.03 - 803.03(k); Appendix D

Equivalents, foreign 1207.01(b)(vi) - 1207.01(b)(vi)(C); 1209.03(g); 1211.01(a)(vii)

Errors in cover sheet or recorded document, correction of 503.06 - 503.06(f)

Establishing ownership of applications or registrations 502 - 502.03

Estate as owner of mark 803.03(e)

European Union Trademark Appendix B

Evidence with respect to refusal or requirement 710 - 710.03

Ex parte, contacts with third parties regarding ex parte matters 1806


Examiner’s amendment

  • approval of 707.01
  • combined with priority action 708.05
  • form of 707.03
  • may not be issued as first action in §66(a) application 707
  • objection to amendment of identification of goods/services 1402.07(e)
  • paralegal cannot authorize 608.01; 707.01
  • to charge fee 405.03; 810.01
  • to enter standard character claim 707.02
  • when appropriate 707 - 707.02
  • without prior authorization 707.02

Examining attorneys’ appeal briefs (See Appeal briefs, examining attorneys’)

Express abandonment of application 608.01; 611.02; 718.01

Extension of protection of international registration to the United States (See also Registered extension of protection and Section 66(a))

Extension of time to file statement of use (See Request for extension of time to file statement of use)

Extension of time to oppose 1503.04



Facsimile transmission, certificate of (See also Facsimile transmission, filing of correspondence by)

  • effect of 306.05(c)
  • eligible correspondence 306.01
  • non-receipt of correspondence by PTO 306.05(d)
  • not available for filing international applications 306.01
  • not available for filing requests for transformation 306.01
  • not available for filing requests to record changes to an international registration 306.01
  • not available for filing responses to IB notices of irregularities 306.01
  • not available for filing subsequent designations 306.01
  • not available for filing trademark applications 306.01
  • requirements for 306.05 - 306.05(c)
  • wording of certificate 306.05(b)

Facsimile transmission, filing of correspondence by (See also Facsimile transmission, certificate of)

Failure to Function 1202; 1301.02(a)

Background designs and shapes 1202.11

Color as a mark 1202.05 - 1202.05(a)

hashtag marks 1202.18 - 1202.18(b)

holograms 1202.14

inconsistent goods or services 1202.19(f) - 1202.19(f)(ii)

informational matter 1202.04

model grade designations 1202.16(a)

names of artists and authors 1202.09(a)

names and designs of characters in creative works 1202.10

ornamentation 1202.03

product design 1202.02(b)(i)

product packaging 1202.02(b)(ii)

repeating pattern marks, not inherently distinctive 1202.19(e) - 1202.19(e)(iii)

scent, fragrance, or flavor 1202.13

service marks 1301.02(a)

title of single creative work 1202.08

universal symbols 1202.17(c) - 1202.17(c)(iii)

varietal and cultivar names 1202.12

False suggestion of connection 1203.03(c) - 1203.03(c)(iii)

Family of marks 1207.01(d)(xi)

Fax copies of documents, filing of 302.01

Fax transmission (See Facsimile transmission, filing of correspondence by)

Federal holiday, response period ending on 308


Files, access to 109 - 109.03

Files, destruction of 109.02

Files, electronic 109.01; 109.03; 402 - 402.01

Filing basis

Filing date label 303.02(b)

Filing date, application

Filing date, for correspondence (in general) 205; 303.01

Filing fee, application 202.03; 810 - 810.02; 1403.01

Filing of correspondence with International Bureau 1906 - 1906.01(i)

Filing of correspondence with USPTO 305.01 - 305.04

  • by courier or delivery service 307
  • by "Priority Mail Express" 305.03
  • by fax (See Facsimile transmission, filing of correspondence by)
  • by hand delivery 307
  • by mail 305 - 305.04
  • by unauthorized individual 608.01; 611.05 - 611.05(c)
  • certificate of mailing procedure for (See Certificate of mailing procedure)
  • certificate of transmission procedure for (See Facsimile transmission, certificate of)
  • time between execution and 804.03; 1104.10(b)(ii); 1108.02(b); 1109.11(c)

Filing receipt 401.01

Final refusal

"Firm" – in regards to applicant’s name 803.02(b)

Flag, refusal to register mark comprising 1204 - 1204.01(e); 1204.03

Flavor as mark 904.03(m); 1202.13

Foreign applicant

Foreign attorney (See Attorney, foreign)

"Foreign" commerce 901.03

Foreign equivalents, doctrine of 1207.01(b)(vi) - 1207.01(b)(vi)(C); 1209.03(g); 1210.10; 1211.01(a)(vii)

Foreign priority (See Priority under §44(d), application claiming)

Foreign registration, application based on ownership of 1005

Form paragraphs 705 - 705.01

Forms, trademark 103; 301; 802

Fragrance as mark 807.09; 1202.13

Franchisees, use of mark by 1201.03(e)

Fraud 720; 906.04

Freedom of Information Act requests 1803

  • for copies of letters of protest 1715.05

Functionality 1202.02(a) - 1202.02(a)(viii)



General information booklet about trademarks 105

Generic terms 1209.01(c) - 1209.01(c)(iii); 1215.05

Geographic terms

Geographical indications used on wine or spirits 1210.08 - 1210.08(c)

Geographical marks, deceptive (See also Geographically deceptively misdescriptive marks) 1203.02(a); 1203.02(c); 1203.02(e)(ii); 1203.02(g); 1210.01(b) - 1210.01(c); 1210.05 - 1210.05(e); 1210.10

Geographically deceptively misdescriptive marks (See also Geographical marks, deceptive) 1210.01(b); 1210.05(a) - 1210.05(e); 1210.06(b); 1210.10

Geographically descriptive marks 1210 - 1210.01(a); 1210.02 - 1210.04(d); 1210.06 - 1210.06(a); 1210.07 - 1210.10

Geometric shapes 1202.11

Gift baskets, identification and classification 1401.05(a); 1902.02(g)(iii)

Good cause, showing of, in request for second or subsequent extension of time to file statement of use 1108.02(f) - 1108.02(h)

Goods (See Classification of goods/services and Identification of goods/services)

Goods in trade 1202.06 - 1202.06(c)

Goods/place association 1210.04 - 1210.04(d)

Government agencies and instrumentalities 1203.03(a)(i) - 1203.03(a)(iii); 1203.03(c)(ii); 1205.01

Government insignia 1204; 1204.02; 1204.03

Governmental body as owner of mark 803.03(f)

Grade designations 1202.16 - 1202.16(c)(v)(B)

Gray tones in drawings 807.07(d) - 807.07(d)(iii)

Greek cross 1205.01; 1205.01(c) - 1205.01(c)(iv)



Hague convention 804.01(a)(i)

Hand delivery of correspondence to USPTO 307

Hand delivery of documents relating to Madrid applications 1902.08(b); 1906.01(a)(i)

Hashtag marks 1202.18

Heading or caption for papers 302.03(a); 302.03(b)

Holiday (See Federal holiday, response period ending on)

Hologram 807.01; 1202.14; 1214.01

House mark 807.14(f); 1402.03(b); 1902.02(f)(i)



Identification of goods/services 1402

Immoral or scandalous matter 1203.01

Improper use of registration notice 906.02

Inadvertently issued registration 1109.15(a); 1503.04; 1609.10(a); 1904.14

Incomplete application materials 204 - 204.03

Incomplete response to Office action 611.05(a) - 611.05(c); 718.03 - 718.03(b); 1713.01 - 1713.02; 1714.01(f)(ii)(A)


  • affidavit of (§15) (See Affidavit of incontestability)
  • effect in examination 1216.02

Indexing against recorded document not permitted 503.07

Individual as applicant

Individual, living, name or likeness of (See Consent to register by living individual)

Individuals who may practice before Office in trademark matters 602 - 602.03(e)

Informal application materials 204 - 204.03

Informal communications with examining attorney 304.01; 709.04; 709.05

Information, examining attorney’s request for 814

Informational matter

Initial examination

must be complete 704.01

of intent-to-use applications 1102 - 1102.04


  • by examining attorney 814
  • from Congressional office 1802
  • from member of press 1804
  • from third party regarding ex parte matter 1806
  • general inquiries from public 1805
  • letter of, with respect to suspended application 716.05
  • regarding status of pending matters 108 - 108.03; 1705.05

Insignia, refusal to register mark comprising 1204

Inspection of Office records 109 - 109.03; 503.08

Institutions, defined for purposes of §2(a) 1203.03(a)(ii)

"Insurance" extension of time to file statement of use 1108.03 - 1108.03(a); 1109.16(c) - 1109.06(d)

Intent-to-use applications (See also Amendment to allege use, Notice of allowance, Request for extension of time to file statement of use, and Statement of use)

Inter-American Convention 1001; Appendix B

Interference, petition to declare 1208.03 - 1208.03(c); 1507

"Internal inconsistencies," amendment of drawing to cure not permitted 807.14(d)

International Alphabetical List 1401.02(c)

International applications for registration 1902 - 1902.07(f)

International Bureau 1900 (introductory text)

International fees 1903.02

International registrations 1901

International trademark agreements 1001; Appendix B

Internet domain names, marks comprising 1209.03(m); 1215 - 1215.10

Internet evidence 710.01(b)

Interruption of U.S. Postal Service 303; 305.04

Interview with applicant or attorney 709 - 709.06



Joint applicants

Joint venture

Jurisdiction over application 1504 - 1504.04(a); 1715.03(c); 1904.02(l)

Jurisdiction, request for 1504.04(a)

Juristic person 803.01; 1203.03(a)(i)



Kits, identification and classification 1401.05(a); 1402.01(a); 1902.02(g)(iii)



Lanham Act (See Trademark Act of 1946)

Laudatory terms in marks 1209.03(k); 1209.03(s)

as informational matter 1202.04

in likelihood-of confusion-analysis 1207.01(b)(vi)(C)

phrases or slogans 1213.05(b)(iv)

Legal advice, Office cannot render 104; 108.02; 709.06; 1801; 1805; 1902.02(g)

Legal entity of applicant set forth in application 803.03 - 803.03(k); 1303.01; 1304.02; 1306.02

Letter of protest in pending application (See Protest, Letter of)

Letterhead stationery as specimen of service mark use 1301.04(h)(i)

License agreements, recording of 503.02; 1906.01(h)

Licensees, use of mark by 1201.03(e)

Likelihood of confusion

Limited liability company 803.03(h)

Limited liability corporation 803.03(h)

Limited liability partnership 803.03(k)

Lining statement 808.01(b)

Living individual, name or likeness of (See Consent to register by living individual)

Lost documents 305.02(f); 305.03; 1711; 1712.01; 1712.02(a)



Madrid Protocol (See also Extension of protection of international registration to the United States, Registered extension of protection, and §66(a) application) 1900

"Mail Room Date" label 303.02(b)

Mail sent to USPTO related to trademarks 302.03

Maintenance of registration 1602 - 1602.04

Manner of use of mark (See Method-of-use)

Mark drawing code 807.18

Material alteration 807.03(d); 807.14 - 807.14(f); 1604.13; 1609.02(a)

Material difference between mark on drawing and mark in foreign registration 807.12(b); 1011.01

Meaning of term in mark, inquiry as to 809.01(a); 814

Membership mark (See Collective membership mark)

Mere descriptiveness (See Descriptiveness, mere)

Merger, documents of 503.02

Method-of-use 905; 1109.09

Minor as applicant 803.01

Minor’s name or likeness appears in mark 1206.04(a)

"Misspelled" words 1209.03(j); 1213.08(c)

Mistake in applicant’s name, correction of 1201.02(c)

Mistake in owner’s/holder’s name, correction of 1104.10(b)(i); 1108.02(a); 1109.10; 1604.07(f); 1613.07(e)

Mistake in registration, correction of 1609.10 - 1609.10(b)

Model or grade designation 1202.16 - 1202.16(c)(v)(B);

More than one mark 202.01; 807.01; 1202.19(g) - 1202.19(g)(ii); 1214.01

Motion marks 807.11; 904.03(l)

Moving goods/services between companion applications 1402.08

Multiple copies of papers should not be filed 302.02

Multiple drawings 202.01; 807.01

Multiple filing bases 806.02 - 806.02(g)

Multiple-class application (See Combined application)

Musical performer/group names 1202.09; 1202.09(a); 1301.02(b)

"Mutilation" of mark 807.12(d)



NAFTA (See North American Free Trade Agreement)

Name of applicant, correcting mistake in 1201.02(c)

Name of holder/owner, correcting mistake in 1104.10(b)(i); 1108.02(a); 1109.10; 1604.07(f); 1613.07(e)

Name, portrait or signature as mark (See also Consent to register by living individual) 1206 - 1206.05

Names of artists and authors as marks 1202.09 - 1202.09(b); 1206.01; 1301.02(b)

Names of characters as a mark 1202.10 - 1202.10(a); 1301.02(b)

National Archives and Records Administration 503.08

National symbols 1203.03; 1203.03(a)(iii); 1203.03(b) - 1203.03(c)(i); 1203.03(c)(i)

Negative identification language 1402.06(a)

New certificate of registration, issuance to assignee 502.03

Nice Agreement 1401.02(a); 1401.09 - 1401.12

Non-attorney may not represent parties in the USPTO 602.02; 608.01; 611.04; 707.01; 708.02

Non-English wording in mark, translation of 809 - 809.02

Non-Latin characters in mark, transliteration of 809 - 809.02

Non-lawyers 602.02; 608.01; 611.04; 707.01; 708.02

Non-profit corporation 803.03(c)

Non-receipt of examining attorney’s Office action 717.02

Non-receipt of notice of allowance 1714.01(c)

Non-registration 1205.02

Non-responsive communications 719

Nonuse of registered mark 1604.11

Non-visual marks 807.09; 1202.13; 1202.15

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 1210; 1210.01(b); 1210.05(a); 1210.07(a); 1210.07(b); 1211; 1212; 1212.02(a)

Note to the File 709.04; 709.05

Notice of abandonment 718.04; 718.06

Notice of allowance 1106 - 1106.04

"Notice of incomplete trademark application" 204.01

Notice of irregularity of international application for registration, issued by the International Bureau 1902.07 - 1902.07(f)

Notice of publication 704.01

Notice, registration (See Registration notice)

Number of specimens 904.01



Office action (See also Action by examining attorney, Provisional refusal of 66(a) applications, and Response to Office action)

Office personnel

  • not to express opinion on validity of registered mark 1801
  • not to give legal advice 108.02
  • not to testify 1801.01

Official Gazette (See also Trademark Official Gazette) 106; 1502; 1502.01

"Olympic" and other designations protected under Amateur Sports Act of 1978 1205.01; 1205.01(b) - 1205.01(b)(viii)

One mark, application limited to 202.01; 807.01; 1214.01

Operating divisions 803.01

Opinion on validity of registered mark, Office personnel not to express 1801

Opposition 1503 - 1503.05

Order of examination 702.01

Order of work 702 - 702.02

Ordering abandoned application files 109.02

Original document, filing of 302.01

Ornamentation 1202.03 - 1202.03(g)

Other statutes protecting specific names, terms, initials, acronyms, and marks Appendix C

Owner of mark is proper party to apply 803.01; 1201

Ownership of mark (See also Applicant, Assignment and Related Company) 1201 - 1201.07(b)(iv)



Papers not returnable 404

Paralegal may not represent parties in the USPTO 602; 608.01; 611.02; 707.01; 708.02; 712

Paris Convention 1001; 1002.03; 1205.01; Appendix B

Partial abandonment 718.02(a); 1402.13; 1403.05; 1904.03(d)

Partial assignment 501.06; 1110.11; 1615

Partners, setting forth names and citizenship of 803.03(b)


Patent and Trademark Resource Centers 112

Patents, design and utility 1202.02(a)(v)(A)

Payment of fees relating to international applications and registrations under the Madrid Protocol 1903

Payment refused or charged back by financial institution 202.03(a) - 202.03(a)(i); 405.06

Performing artist, name of, as mark 1202.09 - 1202.09(a)(iii); 1301.02(b)

Period for response

  • computation of 310
  • ending on Saturday, Sunday or federal holiday 308
  • reset in examining attorney’s letter correcting error 711.02
  • statutory 711
  • time may run from date of previous action 711.01

Person, defined for purposes of §2(a) 1203.03(a)(i)

Petition decisions available to public 110

Petition to cancel 1607

Petition to Director 1702; 1703; 1704; 1705 - 1705.09; 1706; 1707; 1708

  • after refusal of renewal 1606.14 - 1606.14(c)
  • after refusal of §8 affidavit 1604.18 - 1604.18(c)
  • appeal to federal court from 1705.09
  • delegation of 1709
  • diligence 1705.05
  • evidence and proof of facts 1705.03
  • fee for 1705.02
  • petitionable matter 1704
  • procedure for 1705 - 1705.09
  • request for reconsideration of denial of 1705.08
  • signature of 1705.07
  • standard of review on 1706
  • standing 1705.01
  • stay of deadlines pending disposition of 1705.06
  • supervisory authority 1707
  • timeliness 1705.04
  • to amend basis after publication 806.03(j) - 806.03(j)(iii)
  • to make special (See Petition to make "special")
  • to reinstate abandoned applications 1712.01
  • to reinstate cancelled registrations 1712.02(a)
  • to reverse examining attorney’s holding of abandonment for incomplete response 1713.01
  • to review denial of certification of international application 1902.03(a)
  • to review denial of filing date 1711
  • to revive (See Petition to revive abandoned application)
  • to waive rules 1708
  • types of 1703

Petition to make "special" 702.02; 1710

  • basis for granting or denying 1710.01
  • fee for 1710
  • handling of 1710.02
  • must state facts justifying special action 1710.
  • submission of 1710

Petition to revive abandoned application (See also Unintentional delay)

Petitionable subject matter 1704

"Phantom" elements in marks 1214 - 1214.04

Pharmaceuticals or medicinal products 1207.01(d)(xii); 1301.01(b)(vi)

Photocopies of documents, when acceptable for filing 302.01

Piecemeal action to be avoided 704.01

Portrait as mark (See Consent to register by living individual)

Postal Service, U.S., interruptions of 305.04

Postcard, acknowledgment 303.02(c) - 303.02(c)(i)

Power of attorney 605.01 - 605.04; 606

Practice before Office in trademark matters 602 - 602.03(e)

Predecessor in title, first use of mark by 903.05

Preparation of case for publication or registration 817

President of United States, deceased 1206 - 1206.01; 1206.04(a)

Press inquiries 1804

Press releases 904.04(b); 904.04(c); 1301.04(a)

Previous examining attorney, examination approach of 713.01

Principal Register

  • advantages of registration on 801.02(a)
  • applications for registration on 801.02(a)
  • registration on Supplemental Register may not be amended to 1609.09

Printing of information in Official Gazette and on registration certificate 817

Prior registrations of applicant

Prior trademark acts (See also Act of 1881, Act of 1905, and Act of 1920)

Priority action

Priority claim in application for international registration 1902.05

Priority claim in request for protection of international registration to the United States 206.02; 1904.01(e)

Priority claim in §44(d) application

Priority for publication or issue based on effective filing date 201.01; 1003.05; 1208.01

"Priority Mail Express," filing of correspondence by 305.03

Priority, constructive use 201.02

Process, system or method 1301.02(e)

Product design 1202.02(b)(i); 1202.02(f)(i)

Product packaging 1202.02(b)(ii); 1202.02(f)(ii)

Protest, Letter of 1715 - 1715.06

Provisional refusal of 66(a) applications 1904.02(h); 1904.03

PTRC (See Patent and Trademark Resource Centers)

Public Records Division of USPTO (See Document Services Branch)

Publication for opposition

Publications, marks for




Reasonable time between signing and filing papers 804.03; 1104.10(b)(ii); 1108.02(b); 1109.11(c)

Receipt date 303.01; 303.02(b)

Receipt, filing 401.01

Receipt of documents by Office 303 - 303.02(c)

Receipt, postcard 303.02(c)

Reciprocal registration rights 1002.03; Appendix B

Recognition as a Representative 604 - 604.02

Reconsideration after final action 715.03 - 715.04(b); 1501.02(a)

Reconsideration of Board decision, request for, by examining attorney 1501.07

Reconsideration of decision on petition 1705.08

Recordation date 503.05

Recorded documents (See also Assignment, recordation of)

Red Crescent 1205.01; 1205.01(a) - 1205.01(a)(vi)

Red Cross 1205.01; 1205.01(c) - 1205.01(c)(iv)

Red Crystal 1205.01; 1205.01(a) - 1205.01(a)(vi)

Refund of fees 405.04; 810.02

  • for informal application 204.01

Refusal of registration

Refusal, final (See Final refusal)

Register (See Principal Register and Supplemental Register)

Register indicated on certificate of registration 1601.07

Registered extension of protection of international registration to the United States (See also Extension of protection of international registration to the United States and Section 66(a))

Registration as correct type of mark 1306.06(c)

Registration certificate (See Certificate of registration)

Registration notice

Registration, amendment of mark in 1609.02 - 1609.02(g)

Registration, division of 1615 - 1615.02

Registration, reinstatement of registration cancelled or expired due to Office error 1712.02(a)

Reinstatement of inadvertently abandoned application due to Office error 1712.01

Reinstatement of registrations cancelled or expired due to Office error 1712.02(a)

Reissuing of Office action 717 - 717.02

Related applications (See also Companion applications and Conflicting applications) 702.03 - 702.03(b)

Related company

Remand to examining attorney from Trademark Trial and Appeal Board 1501; 1504.05

Renewal (See also Renewal, application for)

Renewal, application for 1606 - 1606.15

Repeal of prior trademark acts 1601.02

Repeating-pattern marks 1202.19 - 1202.19(k)

Replacement 1616; 1904.12

Reply brief in ex parte appeal 1501.02(c)

Representation by attorney or other authorized individual 602 - 602.03(e)

Reproduction of mark (See Drawings)

Republication 1505.03 - 1505.03(b)

Request for extension of protection of international registration to the United States (See Extension of protection of international registration to the United States, Registered extension of protection of international registration to the United States, and Section 66(a))

Request for extension of time to file statement of use 1108 - 1108.05

Request for extension of time to oppose 1503.04

Request for information from applicant 814

Request to divide 1110 - 1110.12

Requirements for receiving filing date for application 202 - 202.03(a)

Reregistration of marks registered under prior acts 1601.03

Res judicata 1217

Resignation of examining attorney 702.01

Response to IB notice of irregularity of international application for registration 1902.07 - 1902.07(f)

Response to Office action

Restoration of filing date 1711

Restriction of holder’s right to dispose of international registration 1906.01(b)

Return of application materials not entitled to a filing date 204.01

Returned correspondence 403; 717.01

Revival (See Petition to revive abandoned application)

Revived or reinstated application, examination of 718.07; 1208.01(d)

Revocation of power of attorney 606



Scandalous matter (See Immoral or scandalous matter)

Scent as mark 807.09; 904.03(m); 1202.13

Scope of identification of goods and services for purposes of amendment 1402.07 - 1402.07(e)

"Search clause" 704.02

Search facility for public trademark 104

Search of trademark applications and registrations 104

Search room, trademark assignment 503.08

Search, by examining attorney 206.04; 704.02; 718.07; 1904.09(b)

Secondary meaning (See Acquired distinctiveness (§2(f)) claim)

Secondary source 1202.03(c)

Section 2(f) claim (See Acquired distinctiveness (§2(f)) claim)

Section 8 affidavit (See Affidavit of continued use or excusable nonuse (§8))

Section 15 affidavit (See Affidavit of incontestability)

Section 44 (See also Foreign registration, application based on ownership of and Priority claim in §44(d) application and Priority under §44(d), application claiming)

  • applications for Supplemental Register under 1014
  • assignment of applications under 1006
  • claim of acquired distinctiveness in application under 1010
  • eligible applicants, under 1002 - 1002.05
  • international trademark agreements implemented by 1001
  • sections of publications, marks that identify 1202.07 - 1202.07(b)

Section 66(a) application (See also Extension of protection of international registration to the United States and Registered extension of protection of international registration to the United States)

Section 71 affidavit 1613 - 1613.21(d); 1904.10

Security interest agreements, recording of 503.02

Serial number 401.02

Series code 401.02

Service mark

Service, what is a 1301.01 - 1301.01(b)(vi)


Shape as mark

Signature (See also Verification of application)

Single creative work, title of 1202.08 - 1202.08(f); 1301.02(d)

"Single source" (related companies) 1201.07 - 1201.07(b)(iv)

Size of mark on drawing 807.05(c); 807.06(a)


Sole proprietorship as applicant 803.03(a)

Sound marks 807.09; 904.03(f); 1202.15

"Special" applications (See also Petition to make "special") 702.02

Special form drawing 807.04 - 807.04(b)


Standard character drawings 807.03 - 807.03(i)

Standard character list 807.03(b)

Stare decisis 1217

Statement of use

Status inquiries 108 - 108.03; 1705.05

Statutory authority for examination 701

Statutory averments in application for registration 804.02; 804.05; 1303.01(b) - 1303.01(b)(ii); 1304.02(b) - 1304.02(b)(ii); 1306.02(b) - 1306.02(b)(ii)

Stippling on drawing 808.01(b)

Subpoena received by Office employee 1801.01

Subsequent designations 1902.08 - 1902.08(e)

Substitute drawing 807.15; 807.18

Substitute specimens

  • affidavit supporting 904.05
  • for amendment to allege use 1104.10(b)(v)
  • for statement of use 1109.09(b)
  • in response to refusal for failure to show the applied-for mark functioning as a mark 714.05(f)
  • in response to refusal for failure to show use of the mark in commerce 714.05(e)
  • may require amendment of dates of use 904.05
  • requirements for substitute specimens and statutory refusals 904.07 - 904.07(b)(i)

Supervisory authority of Director 1707

Supplemental Register

Surname, primarily merely a 1211 - 1211.02(b)(vii)

Surrender of registration for cancellation 1608; 1904.07(c)

Suspended cases checked by examining attorney 716.04

Suspension of action by Office

  • after final action 716.06
  • circumstances where appropriate 716.02 - 716.02(i)
  • letter of inquiry regarding 716.05
  • notice of 716.01
  • pending cancellation or expiration of cited registration 716.02(e)
  • pending correction of or limitation to international registration 716.02(g)
  • pending decision on petition not permitted 716.02; 1705.06
  • pending disposition of earlier-filed application 716.02(c)
  • pending disposition of request for correction filed with the IB 716.02(g)
  • pending expiration of "insurance" extension request 716.02(f)
  • pending inter partes or court proceeding 716.02(d)
  • pending receipt of foreign registration 716.02(b); 1003.04(a)
  • pending receipt of proof of renewal of foreign registration 716.02(b); 1004.01(a)
  • request to remove 716.03

Suspension of practitioner from practice before USPTO 608.02

Suspension, removal of application from 716.03; 716.06

Swiss Confederation Coat of Arms & Swiss Flag 1205.01(d) - 1205.01(d)(iv)



TAC (Trademark Assistance Center) 108.02

Taiwan, understanding with the United States Appendix B

Tax-exempt corporation 803.03(c)

TEAS (Trademark Electronic Application System) (See Electronic filing through TEAS)

TEAS Plus 819 - 819.04

TEAS RF 820 - 820.04

Telephone communications 709.04

Telephone numbers 1209.03(l)

Telescoped words 1213.05(a)(i)

"Ten-year proviso" of §5 of Act of 1905 1601.04

Territorial commerce 901.03

TESS (Trademark Electronic Search System) 104

Testimony, requests for, referred to Office of General Counsel 1801.01

Third parties, inquires from regarding ex parte matters 1806

Third party registrations

Third Protocol 1205.01(a) - 1205.01(a)(vi)

Three-dimensional marks 807.10; 1202.02 - 1202.02(f)(ii); 1301.02(c)

TICRS (Trademark Image Capture and Retrieval System) 109.02; 402

Time between execution and filing 804.03; 1104.10(b)(ii); 1108.02(b); 1109.11(c)

Title of a single creative work 1202.08 - 1202.08(f); 1301.02(d)

Title or degree 1304.03(b)(ii); 1306.04(d)(ii)

Trade dress 1202.02 - 1202.02(f)(ii); 1202.03; 1202.03(f)(iii)

Trade name 1202.01

Trademark Act of 1946

Trademark assignment, searching 503.08 - 503.08(a)

Trademark Assistance Center (TAC) 108.02

Trademark Electronic Application System (TEAS) (See Electronic filing through TEAS)

Trademark Electronic Search System (TESS) 104

Trademark forms 103

Trademark Image Capture and Retrieval System (TICRS) 109.02; 402

Trademark Law Revision Act of 1988 816.02; 901.02; 1303.01(a)(i); 1602.01

Trademark Law Treaty Implementation Act, changes to requirements for maintaining a registration 1602.04

Trademark manuals 107

Trademark Official Gazette

  • contents of 106
  • notification of clerical errors in 1502.01
  • publication in 1502

Trademark searching 104

Trademark Status and Document Retrieval (TSDR) database 109.01; 402

Trademark Trial and Appeal Board (TTAB)

Trademark website 102; 104; 108.01; 109.01

Trademark, definition of 1202

Transformation 1902.10; 1904.09 - 1904.09(b)


Transliteration of non-Latin characters in mark 809 - 809.02

Treaty or convention relating to trademarks 1001; 1002.03; Appendix B

TRIPs (Trade-Related Intellectual Property portions of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) 1210.08 - 1210.08(a); Appendix B

Trust as owner of mark 803.03(e) - 803.03(e)(i)

TSDR (Trademark Status and Document Retrieval) database 108.01; 109.01; 402

Type of commerce 901.03

Type of mark, registration in correct category 1306.06(c)

Types of applications 801 - 801.02(b)

Types of marks 1202; 1300 - 1306.06(c)

Types of registrations 1601 - 1601.06



Unauthorized practice at PTO 608 - 608.02

Undeliverable correspondence, returned as 403

Unintentional delay

United States Patent and Trademark Office

Unity of control 714.05(d); 715.03(b); 1201.07 - 1201.07(b)(iv)

Universal symbols 1202.17 - 1202.17(e)(vi)

Unpublished decisions 705.05

Unscheduled closing of USPTO 309

Unsigned response to Office action 712.02

Uruguay Round Agreements 1210.08; Appendix B

U.S. Postal Service, interruptions of 305.04

Use dates (See Dates of use)

Use in commerce

Use of mark



Varietal names 1202.12

Verification of application (See also Signature) 804 - 804.05



Waiver of rules, on petition 1708

Warehouse storage of paper files

  • access by public to files in 109.02
  • of registration files 109.02

Who may practice before Office in trademark matters 602 - 602.03(e); 611.02

Wholly owned related companies 1201.03(b)

Wines/spirits, misleading indication of origin of 1210.08 - 1210.08(c)

Withdrawal of attorney 607

Withdrawal of authorization to represent 606

Withdrawal of prior amendment 714.05(a); 715.03(a)(ii)(A); 715.03(b); 715.04(a)

Withdrawal of refusal or requirement after appeal 1501.03

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) 1401.02(a); 1900 (introductory text)

World Trade Organization (WTO) Appendix B

Written application, form for filing 802